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Is it normal to feel constant pain with dry eyes? Does it keep getting worse with years if you don’t go for more serious treatments instead of just eye drops?

Dry eye symptoms are some of the most common complaints that bring patients to eye doctors, especially in older patients. Post-menopausal white women whose ethnic background is northern European (blonde, often blue eyes) are at the highest risk profile. While it sounds...

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What is the difference between blindness and low vision?

The word "blindness" means "unable to see." It is an emotionally charged word that does not differentiate the spectrum of vision problems between "can't tell night from day" to "needs glasses." It should probably not be used anymore, but...

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What is the typical "prescription" (for lack of a better word) with someone who has 20/10 vision naturally, not that they need glasses, but what are their spherical and cylindrical numbers usually when checked?

Usually such a glasses prescription would be Zero (or perhaps slightly plus if you are older). Many people make the mistake of thinking of the prescription number as some sort of marking on a "vision rheostat." That...

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Can corneal topography diagnose the earliest stages of keratoconus?

Yes, often it can. There is no hard, fast line between a normal cornea and one with keratoconus. Rather, it is a matter of degree of abnormality. Before the advent of digitized topography, keratoconus was only able to be detected once it was already seriously affecting...

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How close can someone see without reading glasses after cataract surgery if their distance vision is 20/20 and they have monofocal intraocular implants in both eyes?

Strange as it may sound, the answer depends on what you have been used to before you had the cataract/IOL surgery. A myopic (nearsighted) person typically always had good near vision with or without glasses. So losing most of that, despite now being able to see 20/20...

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What is the effect of refractive index and density on ophthalmic lens implant (IOL) materials?

The "index of refraction" is a term in optics referring to how much a lens material bends (refracts) light going through it. For example, air does not bend light as much as water does -something readily apparent to us when we see a pole sticking up from the surface of a...

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Does eyeball size change after LASIK surgery? Mine now is 26.8 mm. Will it be reduced to 26 or less?

No. It is important to understand that after LASIK or any lens implant surgery you still have (and will always have) a "nearsighted" eyeball, i.e. an eye that is "too big" in diameter. [This is typically the cause of the nearsightedness itself.] These procedures only...

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My doctor says I have the beginning of cataracts. How serious is it?

Developing a cataract is not the same thing as getting some sort of disease. Rather, it is the latter stages of the normal aging process of the eye whereby the natural lens becomes harder, less flexible, and discolored. We are not evolved, created, or designed to live...

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